Books: Manish Goel

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Written by Manish Goel   
Monday, 12 October 2009 09:19



Paper 6: Auditing and Assurance

(One paper – three hours – 100 marks)



Level of knowledge: Working Knowledge


To understand objective and concepts of auditing and gain working knowledge of generally accepted auditing procedures and of techniques and skills needed to apply them in audit and attestation engagements and solving simple case-studies.



1. Auditing Concepts – Nature and limitations of Auditing, Basic Principles governing an audit, Ethical principles and concept of Auditor’s Independence, Relationship of auditing with other disciplines.


2. Auditing and Assurance Standards – Overview, Standard-setting process, Role of International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board and Auditing and Assurance Standards Board in India.


3. Auditing engagement – Audit planning, Audit programme, Control of quality of audit work–Delegation and supervision of audit work.


4. Documentation – Audit working papers, Audit files: Permanent and current audit files, Ownership and custody of working papers.


5. Audit evidence – Audit procedures for obtaining evidence, Sources of evidence, Reliability of audit evidence, Methods of obtaining audit evidence, Physical verification, Documentation, Direct confirmation, Re-computation, Analytical review techniques, Representation by management.


6. Internal Control – Elements of internal control, Review and documentation, Evaluation of internal control system, Internal control questionnaire, Internal control check list, Tests of control, Application of concept of materiality and audit risk, Concept of internal audit.


7. Internal Control and Computerized Environment, Approaches to Auditing in Computerised Environment.


8. Audit Sampling – Types of sampling, Test checking, Techniques of test checks.


9. Analytical review procedures.


10. Audit of payments – General considerations, Wages, Capital expenditure, Other payments and expenses, Petty cash payments, Bank payments, Bank reconciliation.


11. Audit of receipts – General considerations, Cash sales, Receipts from debtors, Other Receipts.


12. Audit of Purchases – Vouching cash and credit purchases, Forward purchases, Purchase returns, Allowance received from suppliers.


13. Audit of Sales – Vouching of cash and credit sales, Goods on consignment, Sale on approval basis, Sale under hire-purchase agreement, Returnable containers, Various types of allowances given to customers, Sale returns.

14. Audit of suppliers’ ledger and the debtors’ ledger – Self-balancing and the sectional balancing system, Total or control accounts, Confirmatory statements from credit customers and suppliers, Provision for bad and doubtful debts, Writing off of bad debts.


15. Audit of impersonal ledger – Capital expenditure, deferred revenue expenditure and revenue expenditure, Outstanding expenses and income, Repairs and renewals, Distinction between reserves and provisions, Implications of change in the basis of accounting.


16. Audit of assets and liabilities.


17. Company Audit – Audit of Shares, Qualifications and Disqualifications of Auditors, Appointment of auditors, Removal of auditors, Powers and duties of auditors, Branch audit, Joint audit, Special audit, Reporting requirements under the Companies Act, 1956.


18. Audit Report – Qualifications, Disclaimers, Adverse opinion, Disclosures, Reports and certificates.


19. Special points in audit of different types of undertakings, i.e., Educational institutions, Hotels, Clubs, Hospitals, Hire-purchase and leasing companies (excluding banks, electricity companies, cooperative societies, and insurance companies).


20. Features and basic principles of government audit, Local bodies and not-for-profit organizations, Comptroller and Auditor General and its constitutional role.


Note: Candidates are expected to have working knowledge of relevant Auditing and Assurance Standards issued by the ICAI with reference to above-mentioned topics.




The following list contains the details of the Engagements and Quality Control Standards (Auditing).  For the purpose of May, 2010 examinations the students are advised to refer to the Engagements and Quality Control Standards. (Source : ICAI website)


S.No.               Engagements and Quality Control Standards (Auditing)

1.         Basic Principles Governing an Audit (SA 200)

2.         Objectives and Scope of the Audit of Financial Statements (SA 200A)

3.         Agreeing the  Terms of Audit Engagements (SA 210) (Revised)               

4.         Quality Control for Audit Work (SA 220)

5.         Audit Documentation (230)   (Revised)              

6.         The Auditor’s Responsibilities Relating  Fraud  in  an Audit of Financial Statements (SA 240) (Revised) 

7.         Consideration of Laws and Regulations in an Audit of Financial Statements (SA 250) (Revised)

8.         Communication with Those  Charged with Governance (SA 260) (Revised)

9.         Communicating Deficiencies  in Internal Control to Those Charged with Governance and Management (265)  (Newly Issued)

10.     Responsibility of Joint Auditors (SA 299)

11.     Planning an Audit of Financial Statements (300) (Revised)

12.     Identifying and Assessing the Risk of Material Misstatement Through Understanding the Entity and its Environment (SA 315) (Newly issued)

13.     Materiality in Planning and Performing an Audit (SA  320) (Revised)              

14.     The Auditor’s Responses to Assessed Risks (SA  330) (Newly issued)

15.     Audit Considerations Relating to Entities Using Service Organisations (SA 402)  (Revised)              

16.     Evaluation of Misstatements identified During the Audit (450)  (Newly Issued )

17.     Audit Evidence (SA 500) (Revised)

18.     Audit Evidence - Additional Considerations for Specific Items (SA 501)

19.     External Confirmations (SA 505)

20.     Initial Audit Engagements – Opening Balances (SA 510)  (Revised)              

21.     Analytical Procedures (SA 520)

22.     Audit Sampling (SA 530) (Revised)

23.     Auditing Accounting Estimates, Including Fair Value Accounting Estimates and Related Disclosures (SA 540) (Revised)

24.     Related Parties (SA 550) (Revised)              

25.     Subsequent Events (SA 560) (Revised)

26.     Going Concern (SA 570) (Revised)

27.     Written Representations (SA 580) (Revised)

28.     Using the Work of Another Auditor (SA 600)

29.     Using the Work of an Internal Auditors (SA 610) (Revised)              

30.     Using the Work of an Expert (SA 620)

31.     The Auditor's Report on Financial Statements (SA 700)

32.     Comparatives (SA 710)

33.     The Auditor’s Responsibility in Relation to Other Information in Documents Containing Audited Financial Statements (720)  (Newly Issued )





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